The association of low to moderate consumption of alcohol with the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been well studied. Previous longitudinal cohort studies examining the effect of alcohol consumption on the development of CKD have found mainly inverse associations; however, Some inconsistency exists.
To further study this association, Sarah H. Koning, and colleagues recently analyzed data on 5476 participants in the PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-State Disease) study, a prospective population-based cohort who were free of CKD at baseline. Participants ranged in age from 28 to 75 years. Results of the current study were reported online in Kidney International [doi:10.1038/ki.2014.414].
Previous studies on alcohol and risk of CKD have relied on serum creatinine-based equations to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR), resulting in uncertain validity in general population cohorts with higher GFTR. In addition to estimated GFR (eGFR), urinary albumin excretions (UAE) can be used to supplement the classification of CKD.
To date, only two studies have examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and both components of CKD. Those studies investigated the two components separately and have opposing findings on albuminuria.
The current study aimed to examine the association of alcohol consumption and risk of CKD in a CKD-free population with serial measurements of serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, and UAE for a “more optimal and integral definition of CKD,” according to the researchers. The primary outcome was de novo CKD.
Alcohol consumption was stratified into five categories: none; occasional (<10 g/wk); light (10-69.9 g/wk); moderate (70-210 g/wk); and heavier (>210 g/wk).
Study participants who consumed more alcohol were more likely to be male, current smokers, and more highly educated. To account for a substantial difference in gender across drinking categories, baseline characteristics were stratified by gender. Self-reported alcohol consumption was validated by the relationship of alcohol consumption categories and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in both men and women, mean serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased with increasing alcohol consumption category.