Three Definitions for Incidence and Staging of AKI in Children

Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2015;10(4):554-561. Application of three definitions of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulted in differences in incidence and staging in AKI in children in an observational, electronic medical record(EMR)–enabled study conducted by Scott M. Sutherland, MD, and colleagues. There are several standardized definitions for AKI, but no consensus about which to use in children. ... Read More »

Biomarkers Associated with Rate of Incident Heart Failure

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2015. 26(4):946-956. In a recent study, there was strong association between high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and incident heart failure in individuals with mild to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD). These biomarkers are strong predictors of heart failure in the general population. Nisha Bansal, MD, MS, and colleagues ... Read More »

Pediatric CKD Progression Associated with Baseline Proteinuria

Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2015. 10(4):571-577. In children with nonglomerular chronic kidney disease (CKD), baseline proteinuria and systolic blood pressure levels are independently associated with progression of CKD. That was the conclusion of a study conducted recently by Sahar A. Fathallah-Shaykh, MD, and colleagues. Most cases of CKD in children are causes by congenital anomalies of ... Read More »

Risk of CKD in MHO Phenotype Patients

Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2015;10(4):578-583. In a recent study conducted by Yoshitaka Hashimoto, MD, and colleagues, there was no association between metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and increased risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). MHO is an obesity phenotype that appears to people from the metabolic complications of obesity. Any association between MHO phenotype and incident ... Read More »

Timing of Arteriovenous Fistula Placement in Elderly Patients

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2015;26(2):448-456. The preferred vascular access for hemodialysis is arteriovenous fistula (AVF). However, some AVFs fail before the onset of dialysis. Tammy Hod, MD, and colleagues recently conducted a study to determine the optimal time for placement of an AVF in elderly hemodialysis patients. They identified 17,511 incident dialysis patients ≥67 years of age ... Read More »

Vitamin K Insufficiency Associated with Increased Risk of Mortality

There is an independent association between vitamin K insufficiency and increased risk of mortality among stable kidney transplant recipients. That was the primary finding of an observational study conducted recently by Charlotte A. Keyzer, MD, and colleagues. Study results were reported in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2015;65(3):474-483]. The prognosis of patients with end-stage renal disease is substantially improved ... Read More »

Monotherapy with ACE Inhibitor and Blood pressure Control in Patients with ADPKD

In most patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and stage 3 chronic kidney disease, monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was associated with blood-pressure control in a trial conducted recently by Vicente E. Torres, MD, PhD, and colleagues. The researchers reported the findings online in the New England Journal of Medicine [2014. doi:10.1056/NEJMoal402686]. In patients with ADPKD, ... Read More »

Executive Function Associated with Increased Mortality Risk in Hemodialysis Patients

Worse cognitive function, particularly worse executive function, is associated with a higher risk of mortality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. This relationship may be partially associated with the burden of cerebrovascular disease. Those were the primary findings of a study conducted recently by David A. Drew, MD, and colleagues. The researchers reported study results in the American Journal of Kidney ... Read More »

Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Have Low Mortality but High Morbidity

In a study reported in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2014;64(5):761-769], Joseph Pulliam, MD, and colleagues reported that despite low mortality rates among patients initiating renal replacement therapy with peritoneal dialysis (PD), incident PD patients had high morbidity, particularly within the first 3 to 6 months. Compared with other countries, the prevalence of PD therapy in the United States ... Read More »

Vascular Access Type Associated with Inflammation

The CHOICE (Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD [end-stage renal disease]) study was designed to examine the role of access on serial levels of inflammatory markers. Results of the study, reported in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, support recommendations for the early removal or avoidance of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Tanushree Banerjee, PhD, and colleagues conducted ... Read More »