Anemia Prevalence and Treatment Patterns in Patients with NDD-CKD

Patients with non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) chronic kidney disease (CKD) commonly experience anemia; as CKD worsens, the prevalence of anemia increases in that patient population. Data of the prevalence of anemia in patients with NDD-CKD are from the 2007-20210 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). NHANES data are representative of the population in the United States. However, the sample size is ... Read More »

COMPASS: Protocol of a Study of Kidney Function and Diabetes in Rural New Mexico

Due to socioeconomic factors and limited access to primary and specialist care, the distribution of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States is disproportionate in rural areas. Early CKD diagnosis and care, which are both difficult in rural areas, can slow the progression of the CKD to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). When patients do develop ESRD, those residing in ... Read More »

Assessment for Risk of Decline in Kidney Function after a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy

In approximately 10% of all pregnancies, women develop hypertensive disorders, a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) occur on a spectrum that ranges from the mild form of gestational hypertension to preeclampsia, clinically characterized by the presence of hypertension in combination with proteinuria, other organ disturbances, and/or intrauterine growth restriction in the second ... Read More »

Outcome Measures for Fatigue in Patients on Hemodialysis

Sixty percent to 97% of patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy experience fatigue, which is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events, mortality, and decreased quality of life. Patients describe hemodialysis-related fatigue as debilitating, preventing them from being able to work and limiting their participation in social and recreational activities. Patients have rated fatigue as of higher importance than death ... Read More »

Estimated Daily Mean Sodium Intake Benchmark Identified

Among adults with hypertension, studies have shown that a reduction in sodium intake is significantly associated with lowering of blood pressure. In a 2010 report on strategies to reduce sodium intake, the Institute of Medicine (IOM; now the National Academy of Medicine), said, “A more accurate measure of total sodium intake such as 24-hour urine collection should be employed in ... Read More »

Pharmacist Intervention Reduces Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with CKD

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events. According to Yazid N. Al Hamarneh, BSc(Pharm), PhD, and colleagues, “patients with CKD are underserved when it comes to cardiovascular risk reduction efforts.” Approximately one in 10 adults in Canada are living with CKD and suboptimal treatment to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events is associated with an ... Read More »

Managing Warfarin Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

The mainstay therapy to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation is warfarin. Thromboembolic risks are reduced with the use of target international normalized ratio (INR) between two and three without a significant increase in the risk of major bleeding. Compared with the general population, the risk of thromboembolic events is higher in patients with advanced chronic ... Read More »

Kidney Disease Quality of Life Subscales and Risk of Death or Hospitalization in Older Patients

For older patients with kidney disease, many of whom have limited life expectancy and a significant burden of symptoms and comorbidities, health-related quality of life is increasingly being recognized as an important patient-centered outcome. Instruments designed to measure health-related quality of life include items related to physical health, mental health, symptoms, and limitations. In older patients with kidney disease, prognostication ... Read More »

Models of Phosphate Kinetics in the Setting of Hemodialysis

High plasma phosphate concentration, hyperphosphatemia, is an electrolyte disturbance in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); 40% of 45% of patients with end-stage CKD experience it. The usual treatment to maintain phosphate concentrations in the normal range is dialysis. In general, maintaining a normal phosphate balance in patients on dialysis is desirable because it may help prevent severe complications such ... Read More »

Uric Acid Concentrations and Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease

In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), concentrations of plasma uric acid increase due to reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hyperuricemia is associated with gout and is also a suspected risk factor for other conditions associated with metabolic syndrome, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Acute kidney injury may also occur in the presence of high uric acid, ... Read More »