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Delayed Release Metformin Suitable for Kidney Patients

A study reported in Diabetes Care of a delayed-release from of metformin shows that the glucose-lowering effect of metformin occurs in the gut rather than in the bloodstream. The finding means that this form of the drug used to treat type 2 diabetes could be tolerated by the 40% of type 2 diabetes patients who cannot use the current formulation. ... Read More »

Tolvaptan in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

Tolvaptan was associated with a lower response on urinary volume, urinary osmolality, and decreased total kidney volume (TKV), and with a greater response for fractional free-water clearance in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). That was among the findings of a trial conducted recently by Wendy E. Boertien, MD, PhD, and colleagues. The researchers reported trial results in ... Read More »

Lower Serum Bicarbonate Associated with Lower BMD

In a cohort of adults in the United States, lower serum bicarbonate levels were associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) in a study conducted recently by Wei Chen, MD, and colleagues. The researchers reported their results in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2015;65(2):240-248]. Chronic kidney disease can cause chronic metabolic acidosis, which has a negative effect on bone, ... Read More »

Association of Age with Risk Factors for AKI

Age is a determining factor for acute kidney injury (AKI); however, according to Sandra L. Kane-Gill, PharmD, MSc, and colleagues, the risk for AKI in older adults has not been systematically assessed. The researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of data from July 2000 through September 2008 to examine the exposures and underlying susceptibilities for AKI in older adults compared with ... Read More »

Lower Creatinine Clearance Associated with Muscle Atrophy Over Time

Chronic inflammation, protein-energy wasting, and progressive loss of muscle mass and strength are all associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD).  Adverse health outcomes resulting from reduced kidney function are “analogous to accelerated aging,” according to Baback Roshanravan, MD, MS, and colleagues. “Clinical consequences of these adverse physiologic processes associated with reduced kidney function include impaired ambulation, frailty, disability, and premature ... Read More »

Racial/Ethnicity Differences in Initial Hemodialyis Access

Compared with white patients, black patients and Hispanic patients tend to initiate hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) less frequently. That was among the findings of a retrospective analysis conducted recently by Devin S. Zarkowsky, MD, and colleagues. Analysis results were reported online in JAMA Surgery [doi:10.1000/jamasurg.2015.0287]. Use of AVF at first hemodialysis has been shown to be associated with ... Read More »

Case Report of a Kidney Transplant Patient with Hemorrhagic Colitis

In post-transplant immunocompromised patients, cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common viral infection. CMV can present in various ways, including colitis, gastritis, hepatitis, and leukopenia. Mujtaba Hasnain, MD, FACP, and colleagues in the Department of Transplant Nephrology at Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey, presented a case report of a patient with severe hemorrhagic colitis due to CMV infection during a ... Read More »

Accuracy of Sestamibi Scans to Determine Parathyroid Pathology Examined

Patients who undergo kidney transplantation may develop tertiary hyperparathyroidism (ThPT) after successful renal transplantation. The incidence of ThPT, typically described as persistent hyperparathyroidism, may be as high as 50% in renal transplantation patients. The hyperparathyroidism often resolves in a few months following transplant, with or without medical treatment. The occurrence of ThPT increases with the duration of dialysis before transplantation ... Read More »

Gene Expression Profiles in Kidney Cell Types Associated with Fabry Disease

Findings from a recent study suggest that globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and deacylated Gb3 (lyco-Gb3) lead to renal fibrosis in Fabry disease through different biochemical modulations. YJ Shin, MD, and colleagues reported study results online in Molecular Medicine Reports [doi:10.3892/mmr.2015.4010. Epub ahead of print]. Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the a-galactosidase A ... Read More »

September 2015: Abstract Roundup

DIABETES Finerenone Improves Urinary-Creatinine Ratio                                              JAMA. 2015;314(9):884-894. For patients with diabetic nephropathy who receive an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), the addition of the medication finerenone resulted in improvement in albuminuria compared with placebo in a recent study. George L. Bakris, MD, and colleagues designed the study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of varying ... Read More »