Cover Stories

Warfarin Use in Hemodialysis Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

Warfarin use in hemodialysis patients with incident atrial fibrillation (AF) was marginally associated with reduced risk of ischemic stroke in a study conducted recently by Jenny I. Shen, MD, MSc, and colleagues. The researchers reported results of the retrospective observational cohort study in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2015;66(4):677-688]. AF affects an estimated 2.7 million Americans. Independent risk factors ... Read More »

Physical Functional Status Associated with Improved Survival Rate Among Transplant Recipients

For patients wait-listed for a kidney transplant, functional status may help in determining which patients will derive a benefit from transplantation compared with continued maintenance dialysis therapy. That was among the findings of a retrospective cohort study conducted recently by Peter P. Reese, MD, MSCE, and colleagues [Am J Kidney Dis. 2015;66(5):837-845]. Healthcare providers face continuing challenges in assessing the ... Read More »

Patients with CKF Experience Reduced Cardiovascular Reserve

In patients with chronic kidney failure (CKF), maladaptive left ventricular (LV) changes and blunted chronotropic response are important factors that result in reduced cardiovascular reserve. That was among the findings of a recent study conducted by Stephen M. S. Ting, PhD, and colleagues. Dr. Ting et al reported results of the prospective matched-cohort study in the American Journal of Kidney ... Read More »

Gait Speed and Risk of Mortality and Hospitalization among Hemodialysis Patients

Because walking involves the heart, lungs, and circulatory, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems, gait speed is an important marker of health status. Nancy G. Kutner, PhD, and colleagues recently conducted a prospective cohort study designed to test the hypothesis that (1) gait speed <0.6 meters per second (m/s) would be associated with increased risk of mortality among patients receiving hemodialysis, and ... Read More »

Elevated Cystatin C and Risk of Sepsis

There may be an association between elevated cystatin C and increased long-term rates of community-acquired sepsis. That was among the findings of a study conducted recently by Thomas Clark Powell, MD, MPH, and colleagues. The researchers reported results of the study in BMC Nephrology [2015.doi:10.1186/s12882-015-0055-z]. Sepsis is a major health factor in the United States, associated with 750,000 hospitalizations, 570,000 ... Read More »

Outcomes with SLED and CRRT Comparable in Patients with AKI

In a recent small, nonrandomized study, researchers found that clinical outcomes for patients treated with sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) were similar to those for patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Abhijat Kitchlu, MD, and colleagues reported study results online in BMC Nephrology [doi:10.1186/s12882-015-0123-4]. CRRT, which permits gradual fluid and solute removal, has been shown to have greater hemodynamic ... Read More »

Midlife Blood Pressure Associated with Late-Life GFR

Factors other than age may account for the high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the elderly. That was among the findings of a cross-sectional analysis of a substudy of a prospective cohort. Results of the analysis were reported by Lesley A. Inker, MD, MS, and colleagues in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2015;66(2):240-248]. Among the elderly population, ... Read More »

Measurement of Novel Filtration Markers Strong Surrogate for ESRD Risk

There is a strong association between a >30% decline in kidney function assessed using novel filtration markers and the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). That was among the findings of a cohort study conducted recently by Casey M. Rebholz, PhD, MS, MPH, and colleagues. The researchers reported study findings in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2015;66(1):47-54]. In clinical ... Read More »

AVF Use Increased in the US after Prospective Payment System Introduction

Since the introduction of the prospective payment system, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) use has increased among prevalent hemodialysis patients in the United States, while catheter use has decreased. That was the primary finding of a prospective observational study conducted recently by Ronald L. Pisoni, PhD, MS, and colleagues. The researchers reported their findings in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2015;65(6):905-915]. ... Read More »

Fructose Tolerance Test in Patients with CKD versus Healthy Controls

Compared with healthy controls, baseline serum uric acid is higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or metabolic syndrome, and both groups show an increase in serum uric acid after a fructose tolerance test. That was among the findings of a study designed to test the hypothesis that there might be a correlation between the change in serum acid ... Read More »