Cover Stories

Diabetes Associated with Risk for Discontinuation of Home Hemodialysis

There is an association between home hemodialysis (HHD) and improved clinical and quality-of-life outcomes compared with in-center hemodialysis, yet HHD remains an underused modality in the United States. There are approximately 450,000 individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States receiving maintenance dialysis; of those, 90% receive dialysis three times a week at dialysis centers. As life-saving as ... Read More »

Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury in Noncritical Pediatric Hospital Inpatients

Among critically ill pediatric hospital inpatients, studies have demonstrated a high rate of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with increased mortality, increased length of stay, permanent loss of kidney function, and increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are few data available on the incidence of AKI among hospitalized children, adolescents, and young adults not requiring ... Read More »

Differences Found between Prescribed and Delivered Dialysate Sodium Concentrations

In a project conducted recently by Ambreen Gul, MD, and colleagues, there were significant differences between concentrations of prescribed and measured dialysate sodium. That was among the findings of the cross-sectional quality improvement project reported in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2016;67 (3):439-445]. To achieve a zero sodium predialysis gradient between dialysate and serum, some investigators suggest the use ... Read More »

Vitamin C Intake Not Associated with Risk of Kidney Stones in Women

According to researchers, previous studies of the association between vitamin C and kidney stones were limited because they were conducted mostly in men. In addition, the studies either demonstrated disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C, or did not examine dietary vitamin C at all. In a study reported in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2016;67(3):400-407], Pietro Manuel ... Read More »

Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors Associated with Risk of Incident CKD

Approximately 13.6% of adults in the United States are affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is associated with an increased mortality risk, an increased risk of cardiovascular events, and is responsible for a large portion of Medicare costs. According to researchers, the increase in risk factors for CKD such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension does not fully explain the ... Read More »

Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors Associated with Increased Risk of Hypomagnesemia in General Population

In the general population, the use proton pump inhibitors is associated with hypomagnesemia, and prolonged use of a PPI with concomitant loop diuretic use are associated with a stronger increase in risk. Those were two findings of a cross-sectional analysis conducted recently by Brenda C. T. Kieboom, MD, and colleagues. The researchers reported results of the prospective cohort study in ... Read More »

Race and Ethnicity Affect Associations Between Kidney Function and Cardiovascular Events

There was a difference in the patterns of association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women and African American women. That was the primary finding of a prospective cohort study conducted by Cristina M. Arce, MD, MSc, and colleagues. The researchers reported study findings in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases [2016;67(2):198-208]. More ... Read More »

PTH Has Value in Predicting Low Hemoglobin Level in Non-Dialysis CKD Patients

In patients on maintenance dialysis with severe hyperparathyroidism, studies have demonstrated an association between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and anemia. However, it remains unclear whether there is an association between PTH and hemoglobin in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis. Domenico Russo, MD, Luigi Morrone, MD, and colleagues recently conducted a retrospective observational cohort analysis designed to assess the ... Read More »

Mycophenolate Mofetil Trial in Patients with IgA Nephropathy Ended Early

Worldwide, the most common type of idiopathic glomerulonephritis is immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), creating a need for effective strategies for the treatment of patients with this condition to prevent kidney function decline. In some patient populations, effective treatments include corticosteroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies have demonstrated varying results of treatment with ... Read More »

Researchers Test New Methods to Estimate Total Kidney Volume in Patients with ADPKD

The formation and growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys are characteristics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), resulting in an increase in kidney volume. Healthy kidney tissue is compressed by the cysts, causing progressive decline in kidney function and, in the majority of patients, leading to the need for renal replacement therapy. Total kidney volume (TKV) has been ... Read More »