Cover Stories

Citizenship Status and Outcomes after Kidney Transplantation

There are approximately 6000 undocumented immigrants in the United States with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), based on data from 2014. All US citizens with end-stage kidney disease are eligible for maintenance dialysis; however, care for undocumented immigrants is fragmented. Some states extend the eligibility for scheduled maintenance dialysis to that patient population; others provide dialysis only when the patient’s condition ... Read More »

Prediction Models for CKD Following AKI Developed and Validated

Hospitalized patients who experience acute kidney injury (AKI) are at increased risk for poor long-term outcomes. Results of studies conducted between 2008 and 2017 demonstrated that while usually reversible, in some patients AKI results in incomplete recovery of kidney function and in others accelerated loss of kidney function and an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current practice guidelines ... Read More »

Deprescribing Tool to Reduce Polypharmacy in Hemodialysis Patients

Polypharmacy is the “use of multiple medications or the use of more medications than are medically necessary.” There are associations between polypharmacy and decreased adherence to medication regimens as well as increased risk for adverse effects, falls, hospital admissions, and mortality. Among patients on maintenance hemodialysis, the estimated average number of medications is 12 per day, the highest pill burden ... Read More »

More Intensive Blood Pressure Control Associated with Lower All-Cause Mortality Risk

Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 26 million people in the United States and 200 million individuals worldwide. The risks for cardiovascular disease, progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality are increased in people with CKD. Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and there have been several studies designed to identify the optimal blood pressure target in ... Read More »

Biliary Tract Disease a Distinct Extrarenal Complication of ADPKD

The most common inherited kidney disease is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which is characterized by progressive enlargement of the kidneys with multiple bilateral cysts, leading to eventual loss of kidney function and development of end-stage renal disease in middle age. ADPKD is the primary diagnosis for 10% of patients on renal replacement therapy in the United Kingdom and ... Read More »

Serum Soluble Urokinase Receptor Levels as Markers of CKD Progression Risk in Children

Children diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) face significant comorbidities and reduced life expectancy and quality of life, as well as psychosocial integration during childhood and into adulthood. The ESCAPE (Effect of Strict Blood Pressure Control and ACE Inhibition on the Progression of CRF in Pediatric Patients) trial established strict blood pressure control and antiproteinuric pharmacotherapy as the first effective ... Read More »

Hemoglobin A1c Level Control and Risk of ESRD and Mortality in Patients with CKD

Patients with both diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for death, compared with those with diabetes or CKD alone. Diabetic kidney disease is increasing in prevalence; diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The ideal level of glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]) has not been positively established; results of some clinical trials ... Read More »

Biomarkers of Kidney Injury and Repair Measured in Marathon Runners

In 2014, a record number of individuals in the United States competed in a marathon; the increase in marathon participation to 550,600 has subsequently increased the need to more closely examine the relationship between marathon running and kidney injury. Because runners are generally seen as healthy athletes with trained physiology to tolerate high states of energy expenditure, the relationship between ... Read More »

Predialysis Systolic Blood Pressure and Risk of All-Cause Mortality Postdialysis

The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite advances in the understanding of CKD progression. Patients with CKD not dependent on dialysis who transition to ESRD have the highest mortality within the first few months following the transition to dialysis therapy. Those patients also have exceptionally high healthcare costs and burden. ... Read More »

Endovascular AVF May Be Viable Option for Vascular Access in Hemodialysis Patients

The recommended method of vascular access is the surgical creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), a technique developed in 1966. At present, only 14% of patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States initiate hemodialysis with an AVF; in addition, prevalent use of AVFs is low in many regions worldwide. Factors contributing to underuse of AVF include long cumulative ... Read More »