Cover Stories

Location and Use of Vascular Access Models Vary Widely by International Region

A functional vascular access is crucial to the successful delivery of maintenance hemodialysis therapy. National organizations agree that a well-functioning arteriovenous (AV) fistula (AVF) is the preferred access for patients on hemodialysis, while also agreeing that vascular access should be tailored to an individual patient’s health status and other considerations. DOPPS (Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study), an international prospective ... Read More »

Health Insurance Status Affects Dialysis Modality Choice

Each year, approximately 60,000 individuals <65 years of age develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD), requiring treatment with dialysis or kidney transplantation. Many patients are uninsured or covered by state-sponsored Medicaid at the onset of ESRD. While patients who are uninsured or covered by Medicaid may experience limited access to healthcare, access to dialysis care is generally available. Federal law provides ... Read More »

A Systematic Review of Vascular Access Outcomes Trials in Hemodialysis Patients

Maintenance dialysis patients with a reliably functioning vascular access experience improved outcomes and overall well-being. However, according to Andrea K. Viecelli, MD, and colleagues, it remains challenging to establish and maintain a complication-free vascular access, and to reduce the need for recurrent interventions. Complications related to vascular access account for ~20% of hospital admissions among patients with end-stage renal disease ... Read More »

Patient Survival Similar between Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis

The cost of caring for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is driven largely by the provision of maintenance, including costs related to dialysis. Healthcare costs for patients with ESRD in 2013 in the United States exceeded $25 million, approximately 7% of all Medicare expenditures (patients with ESRD made up <0.5% of the Medicare population in that year). Compared with ... Read More »

Survival of Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients with FSGS Improved from 1990 to 2009

One of the main causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), the third most common diagnosis among pediatric kidney transplant recipients in the United States. Treatment of children with FSGS post-transplant is complicated by primary disease recurrence in 15% to 64% of patients, and is linked to increased risk for allograft loss. Loss of ... Read More »

Outcomes of Left Ventricular Assist Device Placement in Patients with ESRD

For patients with advanced heart failure, left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used as a bridge to heart transplant as well as destination therapy to prolong survival and improve quality of life. In results of the REMATCH (Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance for the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure) trial, compared with medical therapy alone, survival was improved with placement ... Read More »

AKI and Increased Risk of Heart Failure in Hospitalized US Veterans

The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the US population is increasing. AKI is associated with poor long-term outcomes such as the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and death. There may also be an association between AKI and subsequent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Patients with CKD commonly develop heart failure as a manifestation of cardiovascular disease; in patients with ... Read More »

Incident Atrial Fibrillation Increases Risk of Adverse Events in Patients with Decreased eGFR

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a common medical problem with a high disease burden, is associated with increased risk for hospitalization, adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and death. The increased risks for adverse cardiovascular outcomes include an increase in the risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). Worldwide, AF affects approximately 33 million people and is the most common arrhythmia. The incidence of AF continues ... Read More »

Citizenship Status and Outcomes after Kidney Transplantation

There are approximately 6000 undocumented immigrants in the United States with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), based on data from 2014. All US citizens with end-stage kidney disease are eligible for maintenance dialysis; however, care for undocumented immigrants is fragmented. Some states extend the eligibility for scheduled maintenance dialysis to that patient population; others provide dialysis only when the patient’s condition ... Read More »

Prediction Models for CKD Following AKI Developed and Validated

Hospitalized patients who experience acute kidney injury (AKI) are at increased risk for poor long-term outcomes. Results of studies conducted between 2008 and 2017 demonstrated that while usually reversible, in some patients AKI results in incomplete recovery of kidney function and in others accelerated loss of kidney function and an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current practice guidelines ... Read More »